The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program is a school-based, group and individual intervention. It is designed to reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and behavioral problems, and to improve functioning, grades and attendance, peer and parent support, and coping skills. CBITS has been used with students from 5th grade through 12th grade who have witnessed or experienced traumatic life events such as community and school violence, accidents and injuries, physical abuse and domestic violence, and natural and human-made disasters. CBITS uses cognitive-behavioral techniques (e.g., psychoeducation, relaxation, social problem solving, cognitive restructuring, and exposure).
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment designed to help people manage overwhelming feelings and self-defeating behaviors. These feelings and behaviors may create major challenges in life (such as angry outbursts, violence, depression, immobility and avoidance by suicide attempts, substance abuse, and eating disorders). DBT encompasses core modules of mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skills training. The emphasis is on building and enhancing skills to regulate emotions, deal with the distressing situations, and improve relationships. DBT was invented by Dr. Marsha Linehan, a psychologist, who used her own insights from living successfully with Borderline Personality Disorder to develop this novel therapy. In its standard form, there are four components of DBT: skills training group, individual treatment, DBT phone coaching, and consultation team.
DBT Fact Sheet – NAMI
TST is a comprehensive, phase-based treatment program for children and adolescents who have experienced traumatic events and/or who live in environments with ongoing traumatic stress. TST is designed to address the complicated needs of a trauma system, which is defined as the combination of a traumatized child/adolescent who, when exposed to trauma reminders, has difficulty regulating his/her emotions and behavior and his/her caregiver/system of care who is not able to adequately protect the youth or help him/her to manage this dysregulation. The most common setting in which TST is implemented is for youth in child welfare who can be in birth homes, foster care, residential treatment centers, community-based prevention programs, and programs for unaccompanied refugee minors. There is an emphasis on involvement of the caregiver as being essential to success. TST was developed by Dr. Saxe and Dr. Heidi Ellis at Boston University School of Medicine and Children’s Hospital Boston. The materials are available in Spanish and Korean.
TREM is a fully manualized 24- to 29-session group intervention for women who survived trauma and have substance use and/or mental health conditions. This model draws on cognitive–behavioral, skills training, and psychoeducational techniques to address recovery and healing from sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. TREM consists of three major parts. The first section, on empowerment, helps group members learn strategies for self-comfort and accurate self-monitoring as well as ways to establish safe physical and emotional boundaries. The second component of TREM focuses more directly on trauma experience and its consequences. In the third section, focus shifts explicitly to skills building. These sessions include emphases on communication style, decision-making, regulating overwhelming feelings, and establishing safer, more reciprocal relationships.
Adult women with histories of trauma.
TF-CBT is a psychosocial treatment model designed to treat post traumatic stress and related emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents ages 3 to 18 years. Initially developed to address problems associated with childhood sexual abuse, TF-CBT has been modified and tested with children who have experienced a wide array of traumas, including domestic violence, traumatic loss, war, commercial sexual exploitation, and the often multiple and complex traumas experienced by children who are placed in foster care. TF-CBT is appropriate for use with children exposed to trauma whose parents or caregivers did not participate in the abuse.
12-16 weeks, conjoint child and parent psychotherapy approach for children and adolescents who are experiencing significant emotional and behavioral difficulties related to traumatic life events.
TREM and M-TREM are fully manualized group interventions for women (TREM) and men (M-TREM) who are trauma survivors. These groups are interventions that address a broad range of trauma sequelae among people with severe mental disorders and/or substance abuse problems. Both use cognitive restructuring, psychoeducation, and coping skills training, weaving each of these techniques throughout the intervention, which incorporates a specific recovery topic in each weekly 75-minute session. TREM is 29 sessions long while M-TREM comprises 24 sessions. TREM groups are for women only with female co-leaders; M-TREM groups are for men and routinely have male co-leaders. Both groups are designed for 8-10 members. TREM is organized into three major parts: empowerment, trauma education, and skill-building. Discussions cover topics of sexual, physical, emotional, and institutional abuse, and women explore and reframe the connection between abuse experiences and other current difficulties. M-TREM is similarly organized but differs in the content of the three major parts. In M-TREM, the first section focuses on emotions and relationships, helping men to develop a shared emotional vocabulary and increased capacities to address relationship dynamics. The second section is similar to that of TREM, addressing emotional, physical, and sexual abuse directly. The third part of M-TREM, like TREM, centers most directly on skill-building and problem-solving, but addresses different content issues in a different order than the TREM group.
TREM has been successfully implemented in a wide range of service settings (mental health, substance abuse, criminal justice) and among diverse racial and ethnic populations.
Specifically for women (all ages, all ethnicities) survivors of trauma for whom traditional recovery work has been unavailable or ineffective.
Ages 10–18; impacted by community violence, traumatic bereavement, natural and human-made disasters, war/ethnic cleansing, domestic violence, witnessing interpersonal violence, medical trauma, serious accidents, physical assaults, gang violence, and terrorist events; designed to identify/effectively treat youth who are moderately to severely distressed.
Muslim, Croatian, and Serbian youths, multi-racial, multi-ethnic middle and high school students exposed to community violence and school shootings.
This three-module model, which can be taught on a flexible time and content-specific basis, teaches a basic trauma informed cognitive framework with accompanying skills. The premise is that the developmental disruptions of childhood trauma often prevent the development of a coherent frame of reference for three major areas impacted by trauma: the ability to cope with change in constructive ways; to identify, respond to and modulate affect, and the ability to identify, explore, set and change basic boundaries. Each module can be presented in a four-hour or one day format. An overview of all three, without skill development, is available as a one day program.
TARGET is a trauma-focused psychotherapy for the concurrent treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs). The program, which has been used with adolescents and adults, is designed to serve individuals suffering from PTSD and SUDs. The goal of treatment is to help patients suffering from PTSD and SUDs to regulate intense emotions and solve social problems while simultaneously maintaining sobriety.
Youth and adults with past or recent incidents of trauma.
SPARCS is a group intervention that was specifically designed to address the needs of chronically traumatized adolescents who may still be living with ongoing stress and may be experiencing problems in several areas of functioning. These areas include difficulties with affect regulation and impulsivity, self-perception, relationships, somatization, dissociation, numbing and avoidance, and struggles with their own purpose and meaning in life as well as worldviews that make it difficult for them to see a future for themselves. Overall goals of the program are to help teens cope more effectively in the moment, enhance self-efficacy, connect with others and establish supportive relationships, cultivate awareness, and create meaning.
Teens aged 12-19 yrs. old, various ethnicities, urban/suburban/rural settings, consistent participation in 16 1-hr sessions.